By Biondo L. Biondi
Seismic photos are the most important to present day exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging offers primary suggestions and state of the art tools for imaging mirrored image seismic information. The publication coherently offers the most elements of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and speed estimation - by way of exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The booklet emphasizes graphical realizing over theoretical improvement. a number of man made and box info examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the quantity features a DVD that encompasses a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage facts set) of the SEG-EAGE salt info set and of the corresponding pace version. The DVD additionally contains a entire set of PDF slides that may be used to coach the cloth provided within the booklet. additionally Available:
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Additional info for 3D Seismic Imaging
The hyperbolic (yellow-on-blue line) and the time-delay function computed trajectory superimposed onto the wavefield represents the apby numerically solving the Eikonal equation (yellow-on-red proximate time-delay function employed by time migration. line). indd 15 8/16/2006, 5:34 PM 16 3D Seismic Imaging Computational cost of prestack migration The computational cost of 3D prestack migration can be large. There is a clear incentive to reduce the computational cost, especially considering that in complex media, several migrations often are necessary to converge to an acceptable velocity model.
22) h 22 sin2 (θ1 – θ2) – Δm2 sin2 (θ1 – ∆φ) Figure 10. Inline section (CMP Y = 8 km) obtained by full prestack time migration. Figure 12. Inline section (CMP Y = 8 km) obtained by zerooffset time migration of the data cube obtained by NMO + DMO + stack (Figure 9). The steeply dipping salt flank on the left is imaged better than in Figure 11. However, the salt Figure 11. 90. org/ flanks on the right and the small peak at CMP X = 7 km are offset time migration of the data cube obtained by NMO + not imaged well because of the fast variations in rms velocity stack (Figure 8).
Zero-offset summation surface defined in the data space. The vertical axis is the time axis; the horizontal axes are the midpoint axes. The contour lines identify circles with equal time delays. The cross at the apex of the hyperboloid identifies the image point corresponding to the summation surface. The time of the cross is equivalent to the two-way traveltime τξ = 2z ξ/V. 6) where xm and ym are the midpoints and xh is the offset of the input data trace. It can be verified immediately that a zerooffset trace is sprayed along a spherical surface defined by the equation 4(xξ – xm)2 + tD2 V 2 y z + 4(yξ – ym)2 tD2 V 2 + 4z2ξ tD2 V 2 = 1.
3D Seismic Imaging by Biondo L. Biondi