By M. Bacon
This ebook introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading three-D seismic information. the subjects it covers comprise uncomplicated structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the iteration and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by means of expert geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the booklet may be quintessential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
In order to apply pre-stackdepth migration one needsto supply the corect velocity-depth model. This is generally not known and so is built in an iterative fashion during the pre-stackmigration. Here we seegathersdudng a pre-stackmigration iteration. Some of the eventsare flat, indicating that the correct model has beendetemined. Othersare still dipping and the velocity model needsupdating to flatten them also. As part of the DMO process,onealsoneedsto apply an approximateNMO corection. 5 km) is performedafterDMO and constantvelocily migrationin step 19.
Re The next stepsin theprocessingsequence Migration is one of the key stepsin seismicdata processing- it is the step which attemptsto move the recordeddata so that eventslie in their correctspatiallocation ratherthan their recordedlocation (flgs. 32). There are a numberof texts,suchas Stolt & written Benson(1986),Berkhout(1982,1984)andBancroft(1997,1998),specifically are more there aboutseismicmigrationthat describethe mathematicsin detail. Large dips may meanthat shallower(slower) eventsarrive at the sametime as deeperevents,giving rise to the two eventsneeding to stackat the sametime but with differentvelocities(fig.
Suchstripingmay be difficu]t to removb e y l a t e rd a l ap r o c e : s i n g . 7). During processing,this multiplicity of datais usedto increasethe signalto noiseratio of tbe final stack,to pick subsurfacevelocitiesand to discriminatebetweendifferent recordedevents(suchasprimary andmultiplereflections). Modern boatsare capableof towing as many as 12 cableseachtypically between 4 and 8 km in length,though it is unusualto see more than l0 actually deployed. As a resultof the high initial cost of marinevesselsand the needto havenear-continuous operationsto be financially effective,almost all marine 3-D seismicboatsare owned by specialised senicecompanies andnot by energlcompanies.
3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon