Read e-book online Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, PDF

By Walter H. Fertl

ISBN-10: 0444413286

ISBN-13: 9780444413284

Petroleum formation pressures

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Extra resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources

Example text

S. Gulf Coast area, massive carbonate sections in the Middle East, or conditions found in the North Sea area and the South China Sea. In other words, abnormally high formation pressures may have many origins, frequently a combination of superimposed factors, including the following. Piezometric fluid level The effect of a regional potentiometric surface which is abnormally high can cause surpressures. A classic example is an artesian water system. Generally, artesian pressures are present under the following conditions: (1) porous and permeable aquifers are sandwiched between impermeable beds, such as shales, and (2) these aquifers are deformed in such a way as to exhibit a high intake area to produce the necessary hydraulic head.

In this situation the sediment cannot compact and the contained water is subjected not only to hydrostatic forces, but also to the weight of newly deposited sediment. This results in a formation with abnormal fluid pressure. A factor that probably further affects development of abnormal pressure in specific water depths is rate of deposition. , 1968; Harkins and Baugher, 1969; Martin, 1972). Martin (1972) observed an apparent relationship of the environment of deposition to the occurrence of abnormal high fluid pressures in a sand/shale sequence of the subsurface South Texas Oligocene.

In several areas, such as the Caucasus and Central Asia, the study of mud volcanoes has resulted in important information concerning the composition and amounts of hydrocarbons occurring, the conditions of their occurrence, and their migration (Kalinko, 1967). As a rule, no major gas deposits were present at the source of the volcanoes. Instead, there were small gas accumulations characterized by rock pressures that were much higher than normal and a constant gas inflow from the deeper parts of the basins.

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Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources by Walter H. Fertl


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