By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations world wide block or clear out net content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but in addition in terms of sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional voters. entry Denied files and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen international locations, providing the 1st carefully performed research of this accelerating development. web filtering occurs in a minimum of 40 states all over the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. comparable web content material regulate mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the us, and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken by way of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for net and Society at Harvard legislations tuition, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford net Institute at Oxford college, and the college of Cambridge) and hoping on paintings through local specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of net filtering in those states from numerous views. Chapters talk about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and boundaries of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislation, moral concerns for companies that offer states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the consequences of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on web applied sciences for speaking their missions. stories on net content material legislation in 40 assorted international locations stick with, with every one nation profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked via classification and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Extra resources for Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering [censorship]
Generally, each ISP maintains its own DNS server for use by its customers. To block access to particular Web sites, the DNS servers are configured to return the wrong IP address. While this allows the blocking of specific domain names, it also can be easily circumvented by simple means such as accessing an IP address directly or by configuring your computer to use a different DNS server. In Vietnam, the ISP FPT configures DNS to not resolve certain domain names, as if the site does not exist. The ISP Cybernet in Pakistan also uses this technique.
The technical complexities presented by URL filtering become nontrivial as the number of users grows to millions rather than tens of thousands. Some states appear to have limited the number of people 34 Jonathan Zittrain and John Palfrey who can access the Internet, as Myanmar has, in order to keep URL filtering manageable—or to be able to shut off access to the network entirely, as the military junta appears to have done in September 2007. Technical Internet filtering is not perfect in any jurisdiction.
These categories will not, in the off-the-shelf version of the software, include filtering of content critical of Islam or opposing the government of Vietnam. To account for the generality of these categories, each Internet Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control 39 of the installations of filtering software we observed appears to allow a state to augment a commercial block list with its own URLs. Aside from such fine tuning, however, states using commercial filtering services must choose between allowing or blocking all URLs within a category.
Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering [censorship] by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain